Nuclear Imaging

What is a Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) test?

MPI is a non-invasive imaging test that shows how well blood flows through your heart muscle. It can show areas of the heart muscle that aren’t getting enough blood flow. This test is often called a nuclear stress test. It can also show how well the heart muscle is pumping.

This test is useful in patients with chest discomfort to see if this comes from lack of blood flow to the heart muscle caused by narrowed or blocked heart arteries (angina). MPI doesn’t show the arteries themselves, but can tell the doctor with good certainly if any heart arteries are blocked and how many. MPI can also show if you have previously had a heart attack.

Depending on circumstances, for example if the MPI is abnormal, the next step may be performing a Coronary Angiogram. On the other hand, if the MPI study is normal, we can confidentially look into the causes of chest pain aren’t related to the heart.

How does a MPI test help the doctor?

  • Find out if there are narrowing or blockages in your coronary arteries, if you have any chest discomfort;
  • If you have heart damage from a heart attack
  • Determine if you should undergo to a coronary angiogram;
  • Decide whether you would benefit from a coronary stent or bypass surgery;
  • Confirm that the stent or bypass surgery was successful;How your heart can handle physical activity.

What are the risk on a MPI test?

If you are pregnant, you need to tell before the test;

How do I prepare for a MPI test?

• Bring comfortable clothes and shoes.

• Some medication for the High Blood Pressure (beta-blockers) need to be stopped before the test.

What happen after my MPI test?

After the test, you can go back to normal activities.

Make appointment with your doctor to discuss the result of the test.

QUICK FACTS:

  • An MPI test examines blood flow through your heart during exercise, on a treadmill or with medication (dobutamine/adenosine) to increase the blood flow to your heart muscle.
  • The test uses radioactive material called tracers. This ones mix with your blood and are taken up by your heart muscle as the blood flows though your heart arteries.
  • The “gama” camera take pictures of your heart to show how well your heart muscle is perfused (supplied with blood)
  • The amount of radiation you get from a MPI test is small (less than a x-ray or CT-Scan).

A lung scan is a nuclear scanning test that is most commonly used to detect a blood clot that is preventing normal blood flow to part of a lung (pulmonary embolism).

Two types of lung scans are usually done:

  • Ventilation scan. During a ventilation scan, a radioactive tracer gas is inhaled into the lungs. Pictures from this scan can show areas of the lungs that are not receiving enough air or that retain too much air. Areas of the lung that retain too much air show up as bright or “hot” spots on the pictures. Areas that are not receiving enough air show up as dark or “cold” spots.
  • Perfusion scan. During a perfusion scan, a radioactive tracer substance is injected into a vein in the arm. It travels through the bloodstream and into the lungs. Pictures from this scan can show areas of the lungs that are not receiving enough blood. The tracer is absorbed evenly in areas of the lung where the blood flow is normal. These areas show up with the tracer distributed evenly. Areas that are not receiving enough blood show up as cold spots.

If the lungs are working normally, blood flow on a perfusion scan matches air flow on a ventilation scan. A mismatch between the ventilation and perfusion scans may indicate a pulmonary embolism.

Ventilation and perfusion scans can be done separately or together to diagnose certain lung diseases. If both scans are done, the test is called a V/Q scan. In this case, the ventilation scan is usually done first.

Indications of a renal scan with Captopril

A captopril renal scan is used to evaluate for the presence of renal stenosis and renovascular hypertension. This captopril scan is performed in order to rule out renal artery stenosis in patients with high blood pressure.

Preparation

for all captopril scans it is important that you are well hydrated before the exam. You will need to drink at least one liter of fluid in the hour before your appointment. However, it is also important that you do not eat at least four hours prior to the captopril test. Some medications need to be stopped prior to the exam, such as angiotensin II blockers and ace inhibitors.

Procedure

before or during the renal scan with captopril you will be given captopril either orally or Enaloprilate intravenously. after the captopril is administrated you will lie down under a gamma camera and your blood pressure and pulse will be monitored every 15 min for one hour. An IV injection os a small amount of radiotracer will be given. The radiotracer will go to the kidneys dependent of function and blood flow. During the captopril renal scan, you will be imaged with the camera under the table for approximately thirty minutes. very rarely would you need to come back later for delay pictures which last approximately 5 to 10 min.

What is a renal scan with Blood Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

A renal scan shows how yourblood flows to your kidney and compares how your right and left kidneys are working. How well your blood flows through your kidneys is called the glomerular filtration rate or GFR.

To give us an idea of your GFR, we will need to take a blood sample from you when start the test. We also take a sample 1 hour after you are injected with a radioactive tracer and again 3 hours after.

How do i prepare for the test?

-Bring a complete list of medication thata you are taking.

  • For womens- if is any change that you are pregnant tell the technologist before they start the test. You will need to stop breastfeeding for 24 hours after this test.

What can you expect?

  • a technologist weighs you and takes your height,
  • We ask you to drink 3 to 4 glasses of water in 20 min. You can empty your bladder any time you want during that time.
  • We take a sample of your bloo.
  • You lie down on a scan bed and we inject a small amount of radioactive tracer into a vein in your arm or hand.
  • The scan starts right after you are injected. It takes about 20 min.
  • We ask you to empty your bladder and return for 2 more images. This takes about 5 min.
  • one hour after you are injected, the technologist takes another sample of your blood. You can get up and walk around after they take the sample.
  • 3 hours after you are injected, the technologist takes another sample of blood. After that you can go home.

Side effects- None. You can go back to your normal activities once the test is done.

Radioactive Iodine I-131 (also called Radioiodine I-131) therapy is a treatment for an overactive thyroid, a condition called hyperthyroidism.

The thyroid is a gland in the neck that produces two hormones that regulate all aspects of the body’s metabolism, the process of converting food into energy. When a thyroid gland is overactive, it produces too much of these hormones, accelerating the body’s metabolism. Symptoms of this condition include an enlarged thyroid gland, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, weight loss in spite of increased appetite and less tolerance for a warm environment.

Radioactive iodine (I-131) is an isotope created from iodine to emit radiation for medical use. When a small dose of I-131 is swallowed, it is absorbed into the bloodstream in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and concentrated from the blood by the thyroid gland, where it begins destroying the gland’s cells. This treatment causes thyroid activity to slow considerably and in some cases, may turn an overactive thyroid into an underactive thyroid requiring additional treatment.

Radioactive iodine I-131 may also be used to treat Graves’ disease, goiter, thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer.

A thyroid scan uses a radioactive tracer and a special camera to measure how much tracer is absorbed from the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. During a thyroid scan, the camera takes pictures of the thyroid gland from three different angles. The radioactive tracer used in this test is usually iodine or technetium.

A thyroid scan is done to diagnose problems with the thyroid gland. A thyroid scan may be done to evaluate thyroid nodules, or it may be done along with a radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) to evaluate thyroid function.

A thyroid scan can show the size, shape, and position of the thyroid gland. It can also detect areas of the thyroid gland that are overactive or underactive.

Another type of thyroid scan, a whole-body thyroid scan, may be done for people who have had thyroid cancer that has been treated.

What is a thyroid scan?

A thyroid scan is a specialized imaging procedure for examining your thyroid, the gland that controls your metabolism. It’s located in the front part of your neck.

Typically, the scan works with nuclear medicine to evaluate the way your thyroid functions.

A radioactive material called a radioisotope, or radionuclide “tracer”, given to you before the test. You may get it through an injection, a liquid, or a tablet. The tracer releases gamma rays when it’s in your body. A gamma camera or scanner can detect this type of energy from outside the body.

The camera scans your thyroid area. It tracks the tracer and measures how your thyroid processes it. The camera works with a computer to creates images that detail the thyroid’s structure and function based on how it interacts with the tracer.

 

What is a bone scan?
A bone scan is an imaging test used to help diagnose problems with your bones. It safely uses a very small amount of a radioactive drug called a radiopharmaceutical.
Specifically, a bone scan is done to reveal problems with bone metabolism. Bone metabolism refers to the process in which bones break down and rebuild themselves. New bone formation is part of the healing process when bones are injured or broken. A bone scan is a good way to view and document abnormal metabolic activity in the bones.
A bone scan can also be used to determine whether cancer has spread to the bones from another area of the body, such as the prostate or breast.
During a bone scan, a radioactive substance is injected into a vein that is taken up by your bones. You’ll then be monitored for several hours. A very small amount of radiation is used in the substance, and nearly all of it is released from your body within two or three days.

Why is a bone scan performed?

Your doctor may order a bone scan if they think you have a problem in your bones. A bone scan also help find the cause of any unexplained bone pain you are experiencing.

Bone scans may reveal bone problems associated with the following conditions:

  • arthritis;
  • avascular necrosis (when bone tissue dies toa a lack of blood supply)
  • bone cancers
  • cancer that has spread to the bone from other parts of the body
  • fibrous dysplasia( a condition that causes abnormal scar-like tissue to drow in place of normal bone)
  • fractures
  • infection involving the bone
  • Paget’s disease of the bone (a disease that causes weak, deformed bones)

What are the risks of a bone scan ?

A bone scan carries no greates rick than a conventional x-Rays. The tracers in the radioactive substance used in a bone scan produce very little radiation exposure. the risk of having an allergic reaction to this tracers is really low.

however the test may be unsafe for pregnant or breastfeading women. There is a risk of injury to the fetus and of contaminating breast milk. Make sure you teel the tecnitian if you are pregnant or breastfeading.

How do i prepare for a bone scan?

A bone scan requires no special preparation. Before the scan, the tecnitian will ask you to take off jewelry with metal, including body piercings.

How is the bone scan performed?

The procedure begins with an injection of radioactive substance in your vein. The substance is then allowed to work its way through your body for the next two to four hours. Depending on the reason for the bone scan, your docotr may begin imaging imediate.

As the substance distribute through your body,  the bone’s cells naturally gravitate to areas that are being damage. the substance’s radioactive tracers follow these cells and collect in spots where bone is damaged. it’s taken up in regions that have a high blood flow.

after 1 to 3 hours, the technician will use a special camera to scan the bones. The damage areas-where the substance has settled- appear as dark spots on the image.

What do the resuls mean?

Test results are considered normal when the radioactive substance is spread evenly throughout the body. this means that you likely dont have a major bone problem.

results are considered abnormal when the scan shows darker “hot spots” or lighter ” cold spots” in the bones. Hot spots describe places where an excess of radioactive substance has colected. Cold spots, on the other hand, are areas where it didn’t collect ar all. Abnormal results can indicate that you have a bone disorder, such as cancer or arthritis or infection in the bone.

What is the Nuclear HIDA?

A Nuclear HIDA (gallbladder) scan is a test that is done to evaluate gallbladder function. It can detect blockage in the tubes (bile ducts) that lead from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine (duodenum). During a nuclear HIDA scan, a radioactive tracer substance is injected into a vein in the arm. The liver removes the tracer from the bloodstream and adds it to the bile that normally flows through the bile ducts to the gallbladder. The gallbladder then releases the tracer into the beginning of the small intestine. The scanning pictures are taken as the tracer moves through the liver, bile ducts, gallbladder, and duodenum.

What are some commom uses of the procedure?

Physicians perform hepatobiliary imaging to evaluate disorders that affect liver cells, the ducts of the biliary system and the gallbladder.

Hepatobiliary immaging is also used to help diagnose symptoms such as:

  • abdominal pain that may be caused by a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder called cholecystitis;
  • pain or fever following surgery on the gallbladder or the upper gastrointestinal tract
  • biliary atresia in newborns, a blockage in the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder.

IS preparation needed?

Women should always inform their physician or techonologist if there is any possibility of being pregnant or if they are breastfeeding.

The Technologist should know the medication that you are taken, including vitamins and herbal suplements. You should also inform if you have any allergies and about recent illness or other medical conditions.

jewellery and other metallic accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the exam because they may interfere wth the procere.

You should not eat or drink for at least 4 hours before the exam.

Risks?

A HIDA scan carries a few risks. they include:

  • allergic reaction to medications containing radioactive tracers used for the scan
  • bruising at the injection site
  • radiation exposure, wich is small

What to expect during the procedure?

The technologist will position you on a table, usually on your back, and inject the radioactive tracer into a vein in your arm. you might feel pressure or a cold sensation while the tracer is injected.

During the test, you may get an intravenous injection

 

A MILK Scan test determines whether or not your child has reflux (food or liquid coming up from the stomach). It also determines how much reflux your child has and how well the stomach empties.

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